Archived posting to the Leica Users Group, 2001/04/04

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Subject: Re: [Leica] Even Worse Than Scotches: IE Linguistics
From: "Stanislaw B.A. Stawowy" <>
Date: Wed, 4 Apr 2001 11:50:04 +0200
References: <>

> >Slovenian language has three differentiations by persons: Singular, Plural,
> >and Dual (two persons). There are only two other languages in the world that
> >have Dual as well. 
> >
> >It also has three genders; Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.

Polish language has three genders as well. Also differentiation by persons, 
albeit not as much evident, especially clearly visible in South Polish 
(Highlander) dialect:

Pojdzwa    Go (you two)
Pojdzta    Go (you more than two)

> I believe Czech is the last IE language to retain the pure pitch accent,
> though Hindi has traces of this as well, while Lithuanian is the only
> modern IE language, I recall, to have all eight cases in play.  But, as
> always, the needed references are upstairs.

Polish has similar qualities :) 

> Nouns:
> three numbers (singular, dual, plural)

Not in "official" Polish grammar, but indeed noticeable. 
But has another funny quality - difference by gender of 
persons named:

Oni    (They, all men or M+F)
One    (They, all F or children)

> eight cases (nominative, vocative, genitive, dative, accusative,
> instrumental, locative, ablative)


N:  Pieprz
G:  Pieprzu
Ab:  Pieprzem
Ac:  Pieprzu
L: Pieprzem
D:  O pieprzu
V: Pieprzu

> three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter)

Egg: Jajko (N)
Would be: Jajek (M) and Jajka (F)

> Verbs:
> three numbers (singular, dual, plural)

Was doing: Robilem (S), Robilismy (D), Robilismy (P)

> two aspects (perfective, imperfective)

Was doing: Robilem
I did:     Zrobilem

> four tenses (past, present, future, aorist)

To piss:
Sikalem (PS), Sikam (PR), Obsikam (F), Sikac (A)

> six moods (infinitive, verbal adjective, verbal noun, indicative, optative,
> subjunctive)

The same:
sikac, sikajac, sikajacy, sikanie, sikajac, sikany

> It also had a pitch accent in place of the stress accent we all know and love.

You mean this funny English accent? 

Polish is more connected to Latin, as Poland was one of major science 
centers in medieval and renaissance Europe and Latin was widely used
as a, uhm, "lingua latina" in such a places. As a offshot, majority 
of slang / offending words, etc is derived from Latin, for example
'kurwa'    (Curva, current meaning: a b*tch). There are many offending
designations derived from this word, because of richness of Polish
'skurwysyn ' (a son of above)
'kurwiszon'  (prostitute; -szon part is very funny here, but hard to explain)
'biurwa'     (kurwa working in biuro (bureau))
'wkurwic'    (to piss off someone)
'skurwic'    (to become a 'kurwa')
'kurwiarz'   (a stupid book; derived from 'brewiarz', a prayer's book)
'kurwiniec'  (stupid place)

- -----                                
                     (Stanislaw B.A. Stawowy)
            Echelon/Carnivore lines: Bob Black, Hakim Bey, 
           Ralph Klein, Sabotage in the American Workplace

In reply to: Message from Marc James Small <> ([Leica] Even Worse Than Scotches: IE Linguistics)